Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior Toward Teaching Physical Education to Students with Disabilities: PE Teachers’ Point of View

Document Type : Original Article


1 Ph.D student of physical education and Sport Sciences, Islamic Azad University Central Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran

2 Asistent Professor of physical education and Sport Sciences, Islamic Azad University Central Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran

3 Assistant Professor of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, University of Social welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran


The present study aims to investigate the beliefs and intentions of PE teachers concerning inclusion of students with disabilities in physical education classes using the theory of planned behavior. To this end, a number of statistical techniques including correlation method, regression analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were drawn upon. This an applied research conducted as a field study using Teachers' Beliefs and Intentions toward Teaching Students with Disabilities questionnaire. The participants consisted of a number of 227 full-time PE teachers in public schools in Tehran. Of these, 59.5 percent were female and 40.5 percent were male teachers (Mean age=37.18; SD=4.59). About 81.9 percent of them had graduated with a degree in physical education while 18.1 percent had studied other fields at university. 38.3 percent of the subjects reported that they had taught students with disabilities while 61.7 percent reported that they had either no student with disabilities in their classes or they had excluded them from the PE class. Interestingly, 57.3 percent of the PE teachers observed that they were entitled to exclude students with disabilities from their classes. The main findings may be encapsulated as follows: (a) attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control as well as behavioral, normative and control beliefs tended to predict the PE teachers’ intention to include and teach students with disabilities, and (b) the PE teachers’ control behavior and intention were found to predict their self-reported behavior concerning inclusion of students with disabilities.


Volume 01, Issue 03
September 2017
Pages 145-152
  • Receive Date: 10 July 2017
  • Revise Date: 28 July 2017
  • Accept Date: 21 August 2017
  • First Publish Date: 01 September 2017