Investigating the Effects of Educational and Motivational Education at Different Levels on the Performance and Application of dart throwing

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Physical Education, Boroujerd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Boroujerd, Iran

2 Ph.D in Motor Behavior

3 Department of Physical Education, Aliabad katoul Branch, Islamic Azad University, Aliabad Katoul, Iran


The aim of this research is to study the effects of instructional and motivational self-talk on the overt and covert levels of motor performance of dart throwing. Fifty seven male non-athlete right-handed university students with age range of 24/68 year old voluntarily participated in this research and they were randomly put into three groups of instructional, motivational and control group. The performance of dart throwing (five groups of three efforts) of groups in three levels of overt, covert and control were measured. In overt level of self-talk, the participants used the phrase of I CAN with loud voice for motivational self-talk, and they used the phrase of Center-Aim for instructional self-talk before performing their duties. In covert level of self-talk these phrases were used with internal voices, but in control level no phrases of self-talk were used. The results of statistical analysis showed that the overt instructional self-talk has a significant effect on the performance of dart throwing, but the overt motivational self-talk did not have an effect on the performance. But the covert instructional and motivational self-talk did not have an effect on the performance. Also the results showed that the overt motivational self-talk improves the performance of dart throwing in comparison to covert motivational self-talk. In overt instructional self-talk group the performance was better than the covert instructional self-talk group as well. It seems that it is better that the coaches encourage the players in using self-talk in overt situations than the covert ones. 


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