Document Type : Original Article
M.A. in Political Science, Faculty of Law and Political Science, Allameh Tabataba'i University (Tehran, Iran)
ECO College of Insurance, Allameh Tabataba'i University (Tehran, Iran)
Russia-Iran relations have been associated with many ups and downs throughout history, and sometimes they have lined up side by side and sometimes against each other. The purpose of this study is to examine the security challenges and opportunities of Russia's foreign policy towards Iran, especially from 2012 to 2021. The question of the article is what are the challenges and opportunities of Russia's foreign policy towards Iran from 2012 to 2021? And to answer the question, we test the hypothesis that after 2012, Russia's approach in the form of a Multilateralism perspective has led to challenges and opportunities for Iran, the common denominator of which is the relationship between Moscow and Washington. The data collection method is library and Internet, and the data analysis method is based on the process tracking method and is inspired by the Copenhagen School's security theory. Research findings show that establishing relations with Russia poses challenges and opportunities for Iran. Challenges include monitoring Iran-China relations, the lack of a strong Iran near Russia's borders, the lack of confidence in an alliance with Russia, Russia's regional hegemony, using Iran as a tool to counter Washington, and Preventing Iran from developing nuclear weapons. Opportunities also include the establishment of a non-Western international order, the advancement of technology and defense and military systems, bilateral participation in the new Middle East order, alignment to counter US unilateralism, and the use of Russia to revive the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA).