The Effect of Instructional and Motivational Self-Talk on Learning a Basketball Shot in Adolescents with Autism

Document Type : Original Article


1 Visiting Scholar, Indiana University, School of Public Health, Department of Kinesiology, USA

2 Department of Physical Education, Gorgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Gorgan, Iran

3 Department of Physical Education, Farhangian University, Gorgan, Iran

4 M.A Student, Iran



Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of instructional and motivational self-talk on learning a basketball shooting skill in adolescents with autism
Method: The present study applied a causal-comparative approach. The participants were 48 adolescents with autism in the age range of 16 to 19 years who were randomly and equally divided into three groups: instructional self-talk, motivational self-talk, and control. The motor task was a Basketball shooting, where the throws were assessed between 0 to 2. Subjects performed pre-test (including three trials), acquisition phase (including five 10-trials blocks), and retention-test (including three trials). Perceived ability was also measured. During practice phase, the subjects in the instructional group were instructed to repeat the phrase “loop-goal” before each throw, while those in motivational group were instructed to repeat the phrase “I can” before each throw. The subjects in the control group performed the same protocol but without any instruction.
Results: The findings showed that participants in instructional and motivational self-talk performed significantly better on Basketball throw scores on the retention test than control group. Also, both instructional and motivational self-talk groups reported higher perceived ability than control group.
Conclusion: These findings indicate that people with autism benefit from self-talk to learn a new motor skill, which subsequently indicate that these individuals have the mechanisms needed to learn new skills through self-talk.


Volume 06, Issue 01
March 2022
Pages 47-51
  • Receive Date: 10 December 2021
  • Revise Date: 04 January 2022
  • Accept Date: 13 February 2022
  • First Publish Date: 13 February 2022