How to Use Self-Talk in Athletes based on Skill and Gender

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Educational Psychology, University of Barcelon, Spanish

2 Visiting Scholar, Department of Public Health, Kinesiology Indiana University, USA



This study describes and compares the self-talk application by athletes based on their gender and skill. The method is descriptive-comparative, and the self-talk application by athletes is examined based on their gender and skill. The statistical population includes 450 male and female athletes in the team, individual, Amateur, and professional disciplines in Gorgan city. 370 athletes who met the research requirements willingly participated in this study. The tools include Hardy's Self-talk Questionnaire (2004). Hardy (2004) reported a reliability of 0.94 using Cronbach's alpha method. The present study reliability was obtained Cronbach's alpha method. The findings showed that women use self-talk more than men at the beginning of the competition season and during skill performance. In two periods of time, early in the competition season and during the skill performance, female athletes increase self-confidence and psychological preparation through self-talk because two periods are stressful. Our findings also show that female athletes use more self-talk than men to increase self-confidence, psychological preparation, maintain motivation, remind goals. This explanation is in line with the findings. Men are more likely than women to use neutral self-talk.


  • Receive Date: 11 September 2021
  • Revise Date: 07 October 2021
  • Accept Date: 03 November 2021
  • First Publish Date: 07 November 2021